Declaration of Conflicting Interests Policy
A Declaration of Conflicting Interests policy refers to a formal policy a journal may have to require a conflict of interest statement or conflict of interest disclosure from a submitting or publishing author.
The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) states in its Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (2003) that:
‘Conflicts of interest arise when authors, reviewers or editors have interests that are not fully apparent and that may influence their judgments on what is published. They have been described as those which, when revealed later, would make a reasonable reader feel misled or deceived.’
Many scholars, researchers, and professionals may have potential conflicts of interest, that could have an effect on – or could be seen to – have an effect on their research. As a result, some LITPAM journals require a formal declaration of conflicting interests enabling a statement to be carried within the paginated published article.
A potential conflicting interest might arise from relationships, allegiances, or hostilities to particular groups, organizations, or interests, which may influence excessively one’s judgments or actions. The issue is particularly sensitive when such interests are private and/or may result in personal gain.
Articles will be evaluated fairly and will not necessarily be rejected when any competing interests are declared.
Examples of conflicts of interest might include the following, although it is not an exhaustive list:
- Having received fees for consulting.
- Having received research funding.
- Having been employed by a related company.
- Holding stocks or shares in a company that might be affected by the publication of your paper.
- Having received funds reimbursing you for attending related symposia, or talk.
If there are other interests which the reasonable the reader might feel has affected your research you may also wish to declare them.
*Please note that it is not expected that details of financial arrangements be disclosed when a competing interest is declared.
Author obligations regarding conflicting interests
In your Journal Publishing Contributor Agreement you will be asked to certify that:
- All forms of financial support, including pharmaceutical company support, are acknowledged in your Contribution.
- Any commercial or financial involvements that might present an appearance of a conflict of interest related to the Contribution are disclosed in a covering letter accompanying the Contribution and all such potential conflicts of interest will be discussed with the Editor as to whether disclosure of this information with the published Contribution is to be made in the journal.
- That you have not signed an agreement with any sponsor of the research reported in the Contribution that prevents you from publishing both positive and negative results or that forbids you from publishing this research without the prior approval of the sponsor.
- That you have checked the manuscript submission guidelines to see whether the journal requires a Declaration of Conflicting Interests and have complied with the requirements specified where such a policy exists.
How do I check the Manuscript Submission Guidelines to see if the Manuscript to which I am submitting or publishing requires a declaration?
Please refer to the Manuscript Submission Guidelines on the journals page to check the policy of the LITPAM journal in which you are submitting or publishing to ensure you comply with any specific requirements needed.
Editor obligations regarding conflicting interests
The same obligations equally apply to editors or guest editors writing an editorial that will be published in the journal.
How do I make a declaration?
If you are submitting to or publishing your article in a journal which requires you to make a Declaration of Conflicting Interests, please include such a declaration at the end of your manuscript after any Acknowledgments and prior to the Funding Acknowledgement, Notes (if relevant) and References, under the heading ‘Declaration of Conflicting Interest’. If no conflict exists, please state that ‘The Author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.
*Please note, a Conflict of Interest Statement will not appear in journals that do not require a declaration of conflicting interests. Where a declaration is required the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial relationship that all authors of the article has with any sponsoring organization and the for-profit interests the organization represents, and with any for-profit product discussed or implied in the text of the article.
You may find the following useful resources to refer to for more information on Conflict of Interest policies, existing codes of practices and more general good practice in relation to a journal publication ethics:
View the Guidelines published on good publication and the Code of Conduct by the Committee of Publication Ethics (COPE).
All research articles should have funding acknowledgment statement included in the manuscript in the form of a sentence under a separate heading entitled ‘Funding’ directly after your Acknowledgments and Declaration of Conflicting Interests, if applicable, and prior to any Notes and your References. The funding agency should be written out in full, followed by the grant number in square brackets, see the following example (the text in bold is mandatory unless specified otherwise by the journal):
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council [grant number xxx].
Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma and space. Where the research was supported by more than one agency, the different agencies should be separated by semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. Thus:
This work was supported by the Trust [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Natural Environment Research Council [grant number zzzz]; and the Economic and Social Research Council [grant number aaaa].
In some cases, research is not funded by a specific project grant, but rather from the block grant and other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution. Where no specific funding has been provided for the research we ask that corresponding authors use the following sentence:
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Please include this information under a separate heading entitled ‘Funding’ directly after any Acknowledgements and Declaration of Conflicting Interests (if applicable), and prior to any Notes and your References.
Important note: If you have any concerns that the provision of this information may compromise your anonymity dependent on the peer review a policy of this journal outlined above, you can withhold this information until you submit your final accepted manuscript.